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Electronics- Simply electronics is the study of electrons (electrons is a fundamental element of any atom) in which we learn how electrons behave with different electronics component and how it’s work on multiple electronics fundamental laws. 



Every metal body made by an atoms, and atom there is presence of negatively charge electrons. And “the flow of electrons in any metal body is called current”. Current always flows from positive terminal to negative terminal. The standard unit of current is ampere and the symbolic representation of current is by “A”. current can be either direct or indirect, let’s understand current by an example

current is define as the movement of water in specific direction, like river moves towards a water fall.


In our daily life every electrical devices or equipment runs by the current and, this is good to know that there are two types of current sources available, one is DC (direct current) and another is AC (alternating current). We discuss both type of current below.

  • AC (Alternating Current) Alternating current describes the flow of charge that changes direction continuously. As a result, the voltage level also reverses along with the current. Alternating current didn’t comes with the polarity means there is no positive and negative terminal in to this current.

AC is used to deliver power to houses, office buildings, etc. the value of this current changes with the time and direction this is also called as daily life current AC can be produced using a device called an alternator. This device is a special type of electrical generator designed to produce alternating current. the AC voltage we use in our home consist 220-230 volts & 50 or 60 hz.

  • DC (Direct Current)- Direct current is more easier to understand than alternating current. Rather than moving back and forth, DC provides a constant voltage or current. As the opposite of alternating current DC (Direct Current) comes with the polarity terminal (positive & negative). we use direct current in our daily life with the help of batteries. And multiple voltage levels are available in direct current in pack of batteries.


In every metal conductor, there are multiple electrons and they always stay at one place only, they don’t move anywhere without any extra force, and the external force to move electrons one direction to another is called voltage. Basically voltage Is the pressure force for electrons. By simple definition, we can say that “voltage is an electric force that acts to transfer free electrons from one atom to another”. Voltage also called E.M.F (electromotive force) and potential difference. Voltage is represented by “V”. As we understood current by an  example of a river in which force in the river which carries the water towards the waterfall is voltage


Resistance control or oppose the flow of electrons. Everything has its own resistance. In electronics, the resistance is the property and the work of this property is resistor stops the flow of electrons. The resistance count under the “ohm”. Simply we can say that “Resistance is an electrical quantity that measures how the device or material reduces the electric current flow through it”. We use resistors to crate resistivity in electronic circuits.



A resistor is a basic electronics component which resist the flow of current and it represented by  “ohm ”and it’s symbol is “Ω”. Let’s say we want to power a 3volts  LED which requires 3V and 20 mamp to operate and we want to power it by using  9V battery. Then we need resistor to stop extra current flow in LED  otherwise LED will get damage instantly because of extra current. To resist the flow of extra current we need resistors in our electrical circuit.




A potentiometer is a passive electronic component. Potentiometer consist three terminals. Potentiometer  (also known as pot). Potentiometer behaves like an adjustable voltage divider. Pot are mainly used to control the flow of electron. Port has three-terminal, we use it’s mid terminal to connect load side and another two-terminal connect to Vcc and ground, there is no polarity in the pot.


A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is the type of resistor it’s also called a photoresistor. This electronic component with two terminal (no polarity)  resistance value decreases when the intensity of light decreases. This is mostly used in light varying sensor circuit, and light and dark (for normal understanding day and night) activated switching circuits. Some of it’s used in daily life include camera light meters, street lights, light beam alarms, reflective smoke alarms, and outdoor clocks. In normal language, we can say that when light hits the surface of LDR the circuit will be off and the circuit will be on its non-working condition but at the time of disappearance of light circuit starts working.


Electrical load

We required two points in order for electrons to moves normally we have a positive terminal or negative terminal and between this path, an electrical load is simply any component or device of a circuit that consumes electricity. Electrical load defines as “the electrical load is a device that consumes electrical energy in the form of current and transforms it into forms like heat, work, light, etc”. And technically load may be resistive, inductive, capacitive or some other.

Electronic circuit-

An electronics circuit consist of an individual of electronics component such as resister, diodes, transistors, capacitors, and inductors connected by a copper layer moving through when electric current can flows. The combination of components and wires allows the various simple and complex operations to be performed, the electron can be moved through it for running the circuit successfully, and led will glow and the motor will run.

In basics level we understand all the circuits on breadboard. 


LED (Light Emitting Diode)-

LED is the short form used for Light Emitting Diode. It is basically a diode that has the ability to give off light when a certain voltage is applied to it. LED comes up with a different size in the market (3mm, 5mm, and 10mm). 


Voltage regulator-

The LM7805 is a voltage regulator IC,  as forward to decoding its name the 7805 consists of the outputs +5 volts. 7805 IC, is a part of 78xx series The xx in 78xx indicates the output voltage such as (5 volts, 9volts, …and more) 7805 means IC gives +5 volts in output if there is 7809 that means IC gives an output of 9 volts. it is a three-pin IC (Integrated Circuit);  input pin for accepting incoming DC voltage, ground pin for setting-up ground for the regulator, and output pin that supplies the positive 5 volts.

Basically when we need 5 volts in our circuit but we have a high input volt source up to 12 volts, then we regulate the voltage from 12V to 5V by using LM7805 IC. This IC can bear up to 32-38 volts and the minimum power to operate this IC is 7 volts on this volt IC can give constant +5 volts without fluctuation.



A battery is a self-contained, chemical power pack that can produce a limited amount of electrical energy (comes up with the voltage level like 3volts, 5volts, 9volts….and more) wherever it’s needed. A battery slowly converts chemicals packed inside it into electrical energy, typically released over a period of days, weeks, months, or even years. All batteries are made up of three basic components, an anode (the ‘-‘ side) and the cathode (the ‘+’ side) and some kind of electrolyte (a substance that chemically reacts with the anode and cathode). 

The basic idea of portable power is nothing new; people have always had ways of making energy on the move. And now days this comes in form of batteries. There is two type of batteries are available in the market for our daily use

  • Non-rechargeable battery
  • Chargeable battery.


These are basically considered as primary batteries because they can be used only once. These batteries cannot be recharged and used again;

  • Alkaline batteries 
  • Coin cell batteries

Rechargeable batteries-


These are generally called as secondary batteries which can be recharged and can be reused. That cost is high, but they can be recharged and reused and can have a huge life.

  • Lead-acid batteries
  • Ni-Cd batteries
  • Li-ion batteries
  • Li-Po batteries

  If you have any questions regarding fundamentals please do ask in the comment section

See Also : https://eyestech.in/programming/strings-java/

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